Port Canaveral is the port from which most Disney ships leave. This also indeed is the name of the place where the space shuttles from the American space agency NASA take off. You can see the launch tower from the port.
You can drive to Port Canaveral yourself and leave your car at the parking lot (under surveillance, for a fee), let you bring there by taxi, family or friends or let you drop off by the Disney Cruise Line buses which will pick you up at Orlando International Airport, Animal Kingdom or some Walt Disney World Resorts (after reservation at the Disney Cruise Line desk at the resort or online).
Before you enter the hall where the check in process takes place, there’s a security check like when you enter the gates area at the airport. Then you have to choose between the standard line or the one for Castaway Club members. Platinum Castaway Club members and concierge level guests have another line. If you’re not a US citizen you need to go to a ‘non US guests’ line (except platinum Castaway Club and concierge level guests). There you’ll get all the documents you need, all administration is done and you finally get your ‘key to the world’ card (which you need to get on and off the ship and to enter your stateroom) and a number which states when you can go on board (except platinum Castaway Club and concierge level guests again, those can go on board immediately). After swiping your card, you can have your pictures taken before a special background and then you enter the lobby being welcomed by a double row of crew members. At that moment your name is called by a member of the cruises staff waiting for you at the entrance. You can start your stay on the ship then and start with a great welcome buffet.
Port Canaveral is the most important home port since the beginning for the Disney cruise ships and will stay this for a while.
You can find more pictures here.